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I found recently during a CTF Memory image challenge, that analysing memory images from VMWare wasn’t necessarily as easy as just having the right profile and files. Hopefully this helps anyone out there who needs to do the same. For this write-up I am using VMWare Workstation Pro v15.5.1.


For volatility to work you need the vmem and vmss files. To get these files the VM needs to be powered on, then suspended.

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Applicable VMWare File Types

File Usage Description
.vmx vmname.vmx Virtual machine configuration file
.vmxf vmname.vmxf Additional virtual machine configuration files
.nvram vmname.nvram or nvram Virtual machine BIOS or EFI configuration
.vmsd vmname.vmsd Virtual machine snapshots
.vmsn vmname.vmsn Virtual machine snapshot data file
.vswp vmname.vswp Virtual machine swap file
.vmss vmname.vmss Virtual machine suspend file
.vmem vmware.vmem Virtual Machine volatile memory file

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What I tried

First, I tried to get the vmware info with the volatility plugin, and a quick pslist with no luck


Secondly, I found here that you can use raw2dmp to convert the vmemfiles, I thought it might work with volatility. I’ve found on ADIA forensics appliance it seems to convert, but wont read the files and on a plain Ubuntu machine it wont even convert.


After this, I did some more research into how vmware files work with memory, as I’m sure volatility can handle it. I noted the tool by VMWare vmss2core, dealt with vmem and vmss files. As I know volatility works with vmware files, I thought I would copy just the vmss file and see if the pslist would work again. Note: 2>/dev/null has been placed due to a error in volatility piping on my Ubuntu workstation


Thats the first win. Now… so analysts have the normal familiarity with raw memory image workflow, lets see if now we can create a raw file that works with this?


Huzzah, now we have an image that analysts normally work with, just from copying some vmware files

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Takeaway points

So, hopefully now you know how to analyse VMWare Snapshots and Images, and the minimum files required by volatility (vmem & vmss). Also, if you need to triage VMWare memory images, you can now make a .raw file that DFIR teams will know how to workflow as normal, as long as they know the operating system for the Volatility profile

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